LANDASAN PENDIDIKAN SPIRITUAL ABÛ AL-QÂSIM AL-QUSYAIRÎ (W. 465/1072)

Muhammad Arifin

Abstract


Abstrak: Artikel ini membahas landasan pendidikan spiritual al-Qusyairî, yang pemikirannya berpengaruh dalam dunia Islam, bahkan sampai ke Nusantara dengan paham neo-sufisme. Berdasarkan analisis terhadap dua karyanya, al-Risâlah al-Qusyairiyah dan Tafsîr Lathâ’if al-Isyârât, ditemukan setidaknya ada empat landasan pendidikan spiritual yang harus ditempuh oleh sâlik. Pertama, seorang sâlik harus mengenal (marifat) kepada Allah, sebagaimana konsep-konsep akidah Ahlussunnah Waljamaah. Selain itu, marifat yang teguh mengejawantah perilaku. Kedua, dalam mendidik jiwa seseorang harus menjaga keseimbangan antara syariat dan hakikat. Ketiga, ibadah yang dilakukan melihat sisi batin atau aspek esoterisnya, sehingga berpengaruh positif dalam tingkah laku. Keempat, seorang sâlik harus senantiasa berzikir dan mengingat Allah dalam lisan dan atau hatinya. Landasan pendidikan spiritual seperti ini akan menjaga seseorang tetap berada dalam ajaran Islam, dan akan menyampaikannya kepada Allah yang akan menurunkan ketenangan batinnya di dunia dan akhirat.
 
Abstract: Foundations of Abû al-Qâsim al-Qusyairî’s Spiritual Education. This article discusses the principles of al-Qusyairî’s spiritual education, whose ideas influenced the Islamic world, even to the Nusantara in a neo-sufism. Based on the analysis of his ouvre al-Risâlah al-Qusyairiyah and Tafsîr Lathâ’if al-Isyârât, it is found that there are at least four spiritual education foundations a lik should undergo. First, a sâlik should know (marifah) to Allah, as the concepts of Ahli Sunnah wal Jama’ah theology. Additionally, marifah steadfast in the heart should  portray in behavior. Second, in educating the spirit must maintain a balance between syarî`ah and haqîqah. Third, worship is done to be seen the inner or esoteric aspects, and thus have the positive effect on behavior. Fourth, a sâlik must always remember and enchant Allah orally or by heart. The cornerstone of spiritual education such as this would keep someone remains in the teachings of Islam, and will present it to Allah who will resulted in peacelful and spiritual satisfaction in this world and hereafter.
 
Kata Kunci: pendidikan, spiritual, makrifat, syariat, hakikat, zikir, al-Qusyairî

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30821/miqot.v41i2.341

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