PENGARUH NEOSUFISME TERHADAP PERKEMBANGAN TASAWUF DAN TAREKAT BARU

Mahrus As’ad

Abstract


Abstrak: Tulisan ini mengkaji pengaruh neosufisme terhadap kontinuitas doktrin tasawuf dan tarekat-tarekat baru yang timbul sejak dua abad terakhir periode pertengahan Islam. Kemunculan neosufisme abad ke-14 M berpengaruh besar terhadap corak tasawuf dan tarekat baru abad-abad tersebut. Selain mendorong “purifikasi” doktrin agar tidak dimasuki unsur-unsur non Islam, neosufisme juga memberi arah baru agar tasawuf dan tarekat senantiasa berada dalam bimbingan syariat. Orientasi ini tidak saja memperlemah doktrin emanasi Tuhan atas makhluk- Nya berganti dengan doktrin transendensi, tetapi juga menjadikan tasawuf berada dalam kerangka ortodoks, tarekat juga demikian. Pengembalian ajaran ke sumber asli al-Qur’an dan Sunnah membuat tarekat-tarekat baru yang muncul bebas dari sifat yang tidak islami. Neosufisme berhasil mengubah orientasi tasawuf dan tarekat baru, yang lebih aktif-responsif terhadap urusan duniawi.


Abstract: The Influence of Neosufism towards the Development of Tasawuf and New Tarekat. This essay studies the influence of neosufism on the continuity of tasawuf doctrine and new tarekats emerged during the last two centuries of medieval Islamic period. The raise of the fourteeth century neosufism movement had greatly influenced the nature and the characteristics of the new tasawuf and tarekats of the succeeding era. In addition to giving impetus in ‘purification’ of the doctrines to avoid the tasawuf and tarekat from intrusion of un-Islamic elements, the neosufisme has provided with guidance so that they should be kept under the syariat control. This new tendency has forced the tasawuf and tarekats to weaken their support to the doctrin of immanation of God toward His creatures, and replaces it with the transcendent doctrine. The return to the original stipulations of the Qur’an and the Sunna liberated the tasawuf and tarekats from their un islamic characters. The Neosufism movement had succeeded in changing the orientation of the new tasawuf and tarekas to be more responsive to the worldly interest.


Kata Kunci: neosufisme, purifikasi, ortodoksi, aktivisme


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